Ecology is of great concern to every society because it depends upon its environment for resource that safeguard its survival. Resource mobilization has been largely cultural in nature. Less technological skill means less exploitation of natural resources and advanced technology means more aggressive resource exploitation. Today undoubtedly maddening consumerism has resulted in serious ecological crises. It is of mounting concern to politicians, bureaucrats and both social and physical scientists and activists to ponder over the issue and provide a viable strategy for conservation as well as development. Sustainable development is the key word today; unless we have a fear psychosis towards our dangerous future we cannot help ourselves but continue to destroy. It is well known that India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries and holds 8.1 per cent of the world's total biodiversity. Being a predominantly agriculture-based country, India also has a mix of wild and cultivated habitats, giving rise to specialised biodiversity. Therefore enhancing and conserving environmental resources becomes a big challenge today. The book discusses the above issues substantiated with cases from various communities in India. It well be of interest to administrators. anthropologists, sociologists, and environmentalists.